Vaccines play a major role in preventing diseases and maintaining good health in animals. It has been effective in reducing disease burden in pets and farm animals. Vaccines contain antigens from bacteria, viruses, bacterial toxins, or parasites. They stimulate an immune response without causing the actual disease.
When vaccines are injected into a pig, its immune system responds to the vaccine and remembers the infectious agent. Thus, when the vaccinated animals are exposed to the same pathogen, the immune system will fight and prevent the disease by exerting anamnestic response. Some of the vaccines provide robust immunity especially with live vaccines while as the inactivated vaccines provide shorter immunity in vaccinated animals.
Pig vaccination can be done to provide protection against various diseases, including Classical Swine Fever, Foot and Mouth Disease, Porcine Parvovirus, Porcine Reproductive Respiratory Syndrome, Porcine Circovirus Associated Disease, and tape worm infections. The vaccines are usually administered in pigs by individual injection.
Indian Immunologicals Limited, Hyderabad, India has been the first manufacturing company to come out with a commercial vaccine against Porcine cysticercosis. The vaccine has been the research efforts and outcome with involvement of the University of Melbourne, Australia and IIL. The name of the vaccine is CYSVAX R and is available from the year 2016. Vaccinating pigs in endemic regions to prevent porcine cysticercosis along with administration of anthelminthics is a good strategy to improve animal health, meat yield and to break the parasite life cycle thus preventing porcine and human cysticercosis.
IIL has collaborated with Professor Marshall Lightowlers of The University of Melbourne, to develop the vaccine Cysvax®. Development of this vaccine is the first step towards vaccine licensing for cysticercosis. The five-year public-private partnership of these esteemed institutes has focused on making the vaccine available to regions where porcine cysticercosis has a significant effect on human health and economy. Effective administration of the vaccine is believed to reduce the incidence of neurocysticercosis-related epilepsy in the developing world.
Cysvax® is a biotechnologically derived vaccine for porcine cysticercosis. The vaccine contains the antigen, Oncosphere protein of Taenia solium. This triggers the immune response in the vaccinated pigs and provides protection against the actual tapeworm infection. Cysvax® vaccine can be given along with Paranthic® - the only registered anthelmintic for porcine cysticercosis, to control the cystic stage of the parasite in pigs thus breaking the life cycle of the tapeworm.
Cysvax is a biotechnologically derived immunological veterinary vaccine. The vaccine antigen is the Oncosphere protein encoded by a specific gene (TSOL 18 gene) of Taenia Solium. This antigen is produced by Pichia Pastoris expression system and formulated with an oil adjuvant and recognized to be highly immunogenic.
Composition: Each dose 1 ml contains Taenia Solium oncosphere antigen (TSOL 18) greater or equal to 150 micro grams, Thiomersal (as preservative) ≥ 0.02 % w/v. Mineral oil (as adjuvant) and phosphate buffer diluent q.s.
Potency: Greater or equal to 500 Anti TSOL 18 IgG titre in 5 animals out of 6 by Elisa.
Indications: Cysvax vaccine is indicated for active immunization of pigs against porcine cysticercosis
Target species: Pigs
Dosage and administration: Pigs: 1 ml by deep Intramuscular injection behind the ear area. A sterile needle and syringe should be used for each vaccination.
Vaccination Regimen: Primary vaccination: Pigs approximately 2 months of age and above Booster dose: 3-4 weeks after primary vaccination Re-vaccination: 6 Months.
Immunity: Develops by 2 weeks post booster dose
Contraindications: Do not vaccinate unhealthy animals i.e. animals suffering from diseases, malnutrition, allergic conditions and extreme stress etc.
Precautions: In rare cases, hypersensitivity may occur, immediate treatment with adrenaline & antihistaminic is advocated.
Injection of mineral oil into humans can produce serious localized reactions and special care should be taken to avoid accidental inoculation. If it happens, consult a medical physician immediately.
Generally, corticosteroid therapy should be avoided 1-2 weeks before and after the vaccination for developing good immune response.
Side Effects: Generally, no significant side effects are noticed, however in some animals temporary pyrexia, lethargy for 1-2 days and local injection site reactions for up to 7 days may be observed after vaccination.
Effects with other vaccines: No information is available on the compatibility of this vaccine with any other vaccines. Therefore, the safety and efficacy of this product when used with other vaccines has not been demonstrated.
Withdrawal Period: Zero days.
Overdose: With administration of a 5-fold overdose of vaccine, no adverse reactions were observed under farm conditions other than those described under side effects.
Storage & Transport: The vaccine should be stored and transported between 2°C and8°C
DO NOT FREEZE. SHAKE WELL BEFORE USE. KEEP OUT OF REACH OF CHILDREN.
Shelf Life: 24 months from the date of manufacture when stored at recommended storage conditions.
Disposal of Used Containers: The empty containers of the vaccine, used syringes and needles should be disposed of properly and carefully according to local regulatory requirements.
Presentation: Cysvax is available as 1mL,5mL,10mL & 20mL vialKnow more about Cysvax®